Many critics of Atlantis insist that, besides Plato’s dialogues, Timaeus and Critias, there is no other independent evidence provided by ancient authorities on the matter. Nothing could be farther away from the truth. Indeed, the ancient myths and traditions of most nations center on the legend of the Flood and on the destruction of Paradise, the original focus of Civilization that is no other than Atlantis.
Now, the Terrestrial Paradise – and not the Celestial one, by the way -is the Garden of Eden where Man originated and first rose above the beasts of the field. However, we agree that the Terrestrial Paradise, despite its unequivocal reality, has been spiritualized by many, and hence can hardly be invoked as “hard” proof of the former existence of Atlantis.
For that purpose, we gathered in the present chapter some passages of ancient historians who wrote on Atlantis and related matters, drawing from sources and traditions independent of the ones utilized by Plato. We do it in a schematic, listed way, in order to facilitate the comparison. Of course, the concise style adopted here renders any explanations impossible, and the themes touched are more study guides than anything else. The reader interested in further details is encouraged to quest the original sources or, if incapable of that, to read the more detailed accounts in other works of ours.
The Pillars of Atlantis
Proclus, a commentator of Plato’s works, affirms that Crantor too visited Sais, in Egypt, as Solon had done 300 years before. There, the Egyptian priests showed him a golden pillar inscribed with hieroglyphs that recorded in detail the history of Atlantis exactly as they had told it to his famous predecessor.
Manetho, the Egyptian chronicler, confirms the existence of such pillars and claims that, shortly before the Flood, Thoth-Hermes inscribed in stelae (pillars) the epitome of the ancient wisdom, so that the ancient knowledge should not be lost in the cataclysm.
Josephus, the Jewish historian contemporaneous with Christ, reports that Seth (Thoth?) “in order that wisdom and astronomical knowledge should not perish in the cataclysm.. made two pillars, one of stone the other of brick in which he inscribed this knowledge for posterity, said pillars existing in the land of Siriad to this day”.
Herodotus (Hist. II:58) personally saw, in Tyre (Phoenicia), in a temple of Hercules, “two pillars, one of pure gold, the other of emerald, which shone with great brilliancy at night.” Such Pillars of Hercules were erected by the Phoenicians just about everywhere they settled. But they did it particularly at crucial straits linking two seas, as was the case of Gibraltar, the Bosphorus, etc. The twin pillars commemorated, according to experts, the two founders of Atlantis, Hercules and Atlas.
Alexander, the Great, personally saw and inspected, according to his historians, many such giant pillars of gold bearing strange scripts in the extremities of India. He went beyond the pillars of Hercules and Dionysus as the limits of their exploits towards the Orient (the Indies), and even left his own pillars as a testimony of his feat. Now, Dionysus is the divine alias of Atlas, the elder twin of Hercules. So, just as we had the Pillars of Hercules and Atlas in Gibraltar, marking the western extreme of their ancient exploits, we also have their eastern counterparts in the extremities of the Indies, marking the true site of Atlantis.
Plato affirms, in his Critias, that the Atlantean kings inscribed in golden pillars their laws, edicts and judicial decisions, in a strange ritual involving the sacrifice of a bull dedicated to Poseidon. This type of ritual is characteristic of the Indies, where it is called Gomedha This sacrifice commemorates the death of Paradise (Gomeda-dvipa), which seems to be no other than Atlantis itself. A well-known instance of such inscribed pillars in India is the Pillar of Delhi, erected by King Ashoka, to commemorate his victory over his enemies. Though made of steel, the Pillar of Delhi is a peerless technological feat of antiquity, one that many experts associate with Atlantis. The pillar is forged from a single piece of steel, and is stainless, having defied the centuries without any oxidation at all. No one in antiquity could have matched this feat of the Hindus, which certainly obtained this sophisticated technology in Atlantis.
Another puzzling technology that proves the superior metallurgical skill of the Atlanteans is the “orichalch” that Plato mentions as covering the walls of Atlantis. Rather than the foolish idea of “mountain copper” – for copper ores, as indeed most metals, normally come from the mountains – the true etym of the name is as in the Latin spelling aurichalcum, that is, “golden copper”, or “golden bronze”. In reality the word pertains to brass, an alloy of copper and zinc that resembles gold, just as Plato states. Brass was only developed again in modern times, due to insuperable technological difficulties. And the secret of its technology was passed on by the Hindus, who got it directly from Atlantis, where else? The fact that Plato knew of it, and attributed its technology to Atlantis can, hence, hardly be doubted.
Plato tells how the walls of Atlantis were clad with gold, silver, bronze, tin and orichalch. This fact attests Atlantis’ enormous mineral wealth, at an epoch when no one else had yet developed these sophisticate technologies. Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, was used in enormous quantities during the Bronze Age. The sources of these metals and, particularly, tin, have never been adequately identified. The Koltepe mines in Anatolia (Turkey) were a puny affair, those of Tartessos (Spain) were purely legendary, and those of Cornwall (England) were discovered only after the Bronze Age had declined. All that tin traditionally came from the legendary “Islands of Tin”, the Cassiterides. These mysterious islands were also called Tarshish, Tartessos, “Islands of Metals”, etc.. Their existence is stated in the Bible and other sources which are hard to doubt. As we detail elsewhere, Tarshish was in reality the same as Punt (Indonesia), even today the world’s greatest supplier of tin. So, if Plato is indeed right, we are led to conclude that Atlantis was in fact Indonesia.
The Date of 11,600 Before Present
Plato affirms that the demise of Atlantis took place “9,000 years before the times of Solon”. Now, Solon visited Egypt at about 600 BC, which adds to a total of about 11,600 BP (Before Present). Now, this is precisely the date of the cataclysmic ending of the Pleistocene Ice Age, as given by the geologic record. So, we are led to conclude that Plato’s date is correct, and that the Greek philosopher indeed knew what he was talking about.
Strabo, the Greek geographer and historian, tells us that 2,600 years before his time, certain navigants crossed beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and dealt with the Tartessians. Now, these Tartessians – who are often identified with the Atlanteans – had, he affirms, written records of their history that amounted to 7,000 years before their own time. Again, this adds to a date of about 11,600 BP, precisely as preconized by Plato for the Atlantean cataclysm, for Strabo flourished in the times of Christ.
Arnobius, a Christian bishop of the fourth century AD, told in one of his sermons concerning the catastrophes that have previously destroyed human civilization, that “ten thousand years ago, a vast number of men burst forth from the island which is called Atlantis of Neptune, as Plato tells us, and utterly ruined and blotted out countless nations.” Again, the date given by Arnobius turns out to be precisely the one of 11,600 BC. Though Arnobius’ relation seems to be based on that of Plato, he had access to sources now lost that apparently confirmed Plato’s disclosure in an independent way.
Manetho, the Egyptian historian, places the start of the dynasty of the “Spirits of the Dead” 5,813 years before Menes, the first king of unified Egypt. Now, Menes flourished between 3,100 and 3,800 BC or perhaps, even earlier, as some specialists claim. Again, this gives a date between 11,000 and 11,600 BC, in close agreement with the one given by Plato. It is quite probable that the “Spirits of the Dead” of Manetho were indeed the survivors of the Atlantean cataclysm, the same dead ancestors that the Romans called Lemures or Lares.
The Hindu traditions on the Yugas, as well as the similar ones of the Persians, hold that the eras of mankind last about 12,000 years each. On the other hand, these and other traditions maintain that we now enter, in the year 2,000, the final millennium of the present era, which started just after the demise of Atlantis. So, once again, we are led to the conclusion that the Atlantean cataclysm took place between 11,000 and 12,000 years ago.
The Codex Troano of the Mayas, translated by Augustus le Plongeon, the celebrated Mayanist, recounts the tragedy of Lemurian Atlantis, which sunk away in a terrible cataclysm. It tells that millions of people died in the cataclysm, and that the event took place “8,060 years before the writing of this book.” Supposing that the codex was written at about 1,500 BC, the start of the pre-classic Era, when the Mayan (Olmec) civilization sprung, we get a date for the cataclysm of about 11,600 BP. This is in perfect agreement with the date given by Plato. As is known, the Mayas originally came to America from an overseas paradise called Aztlan which sunk away underseas. Aztlan in visibly no other thing than Plato’s Atlantis. Except that Aztlan was located beyond the Pacific, rather than the Atlantic Ocean.
The Ramayana – the book that tells the destruction of Lanka by Rama and Hanumant – affirms that this war took place some 10,000 years before its own times. Now, the experts agree that the Ramayana was written at about 300 BC by Valmiki. Thus, the destruction of Lanka – which is no other thing than the one of Atlantis – took place at about 12,000 BP or so, in fair agreement with the date given by Plato.
Hindu traditions affirm that the first sangham (poetic academy) lasted for 4,400 years. The second one for 3,700 years. And the third and last one, which ended at about the start of the Christian era, lasted for 1,850 years. This yields at total of 11,900 BP for the start of the sanghams which, tradition holds, began shortly after the Flood. Considering that the Flood corresponds to the cataclysm that destroyed Atlantis, this Hindu tradition on the poetic academics confirms the date of Plato with excellent accuracy.
The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age – the date of whose closely coincides with the one of 11,600 BP given by Plato for Atlantis’ demise – also marks the rise of agriculture, of city-building and of the Neolithic both in the Old and the New Worlds. According to a universal tradition, civilization was brought just about everywhere by white, blond, blue-eyed, titanic giants. These giants are no other than the Atlanteans fleeing their destroyed Paradise and moving into their new homelands in order to make a fresh start. As if to confirm this worldwide tradition, it is at this date that we start to find fossil skeletons of Cro-Magnoid men, so often equated with the Atlanteans. And these are found precisely the sites connected with the rise of the Neolithic and of Civilization
Arthur Posnansky – the German-Bolivian archaeologist who long studied Tiahuanaco, the site of origin of the Incan civilization of Peru and Bolivia – concluded that this region of the Andes was formerly a seaport which suffered an uplift of about 3,000 meters. This cataclysm happened at about 11 or 12 thousand years ago, precisely the epoch of the Atlantean demise.
Bruce Heezen, the famous oceanographer of the Lamont Geological Observatory, showed that sea-level underwent a rise of about 100 to 150 meters worldwide at about 11,600 BP. This rise resulted from the meltwaters of the Ice Age glaciers that covered a substantial portion of the continents in the temperate regions of the world and which were up to a few kilometers in thickness. Heezen also pointed out that this rise of sea-level was sufficient to drown most low-lying coastal regions of the planet. In particular, the region that now forms the South China Sea averages under 60 meters or so in depth. Thus, this region – precisely the one which we preconize to have been the site of Atlantis – got submerged by the rising waters, just as affirmed by Plato.
Turning to Egyptian traditions, the source on which Plato bases his legend of Atlantis. The famous zodiac of Dendera – which was copied from far older versions whose origins are lost in the night of times – indicates that the constellation Leo lay at the vernal point in the epoch of its start. Now, the era of Leo centers at about 11,720 BC, in close agreement with the date given by Plato for the end of Atlantis and the start of the present era. What event but the cataclysmic end of the Pleistocene Ice Age and the consequent demise of Atlantis could better serve for the new start of times marked in that famous zodiac?
Makrisi, a famous Arab historian of Egypt, affirms that “fire issued from the sign of Leo to destroy the world.” This conflagration apparently confirms the above connection between the star of Dendera’s zodiac and the Atlantean cataclysm disclosed by Plato. The Arabs conquered Egypt, and inherited its magnificent culture and traditions, and it is quite likely that Makrisi was basing himself on them.
A Coptic papyrus indicates the same date for the Atlantean cataclysm. According to it: “the Flood will take place when the heart of the Lion (Aldebaran) enters the start of the head of Cancer”. In other words, the papyrus affirms that when the vernal point coincided with the center of Leo – an event that took place some 11,600 years ago – the Flood took place, destroying Atlantis and ending the Pleistocene Ice Age, which had lasted for some 2.5 millions of years. In the terrible event, a great many species of mammals and other creatures became extinct all over the world. This fact attests the universal character of the tragedy.
Full article : atlan.org/articles/corroborating_evidence/
Comments at ATS:
Greek myths tell the legend of the Atlantides, the seven beautiful daughters of the Titan Atlas, the founding father of Atlantis. The Atlantides are also called Pleiades or Hesperides, and personify the seven Islands of the Blest, which the Greeks obscurely placed in the Outer Ocean (Atlantic). These Islands of the Blest became vaguely confused with the Canary Islands. But after these islands were discovered and proved rather barren, the Atlantic Islands receded to remoter regions, and figured just about everywhere in the ancient maps. But they kept the ancient tradition on the seven islands which were the remains of sunken Atlantis.
In Greek myths, the Seven Pleiades (or Atlantides) were turned into the famous constellations after they drowned in the Outer Ocean, preferring death to dishonor in the hands of their cruel persecutor, Orion, the Hunter. As the Hesperides, the seven sisters were the guardians of the Seven Islands of the Blest, where stood the Gardens of Atlas, their father. The Garden of the Hesperides was placed, according to Eustatius, in agro Atlantis “in the fields of Atlas” (or Atlantis?), in the neighborhood of Mt. Atlas. More exactly, this fabulous garden was the Garden of Eden of the Judeo-Christians. It was also the Garden of Avalon of the Celts, the Garden of Idun of the Germans, the Hades (or Islands of the Blest) of the ancient Greeks, etc. All these were indeed disguises of Plato’s Atlantis which, after its sinking, became the Realm of the Dead, the paradisial islands that we now equate with Hell.
I am sure I am not confusing it with something like this or the poster did confuse something like this.
a reply to: AtlantisWasReal
The native people of the Canary Island’s were related more closely to the north African berber tribe’s and were a light skinned fair or even red haired people though it is presumably possible that due to the isolation a later genetic heritage brought to the island’s by berber sailors could have become dominant over several generations and hidden an earlier genetic legacy, when the Spaniard’s invaded and colonized the island’s they more or less wiped the original inhabitant’s out but not completely and there are several account’s of them believing they had a lost land beneath the sea which a great number of Atlantis in the Atlantic adherent’s have claimed is atlantis, I do not know if the name of there sunken legend’s even survived the invasion as much of there culture was undoubtedly erased by the forced conversion and imported culture of the Spanish settler’s.
Very interesting group of people though.
Though linked to the Berbers it is also worth noting that the Irish also have shared genetic’s with the north african Berbers in a great part of Ireland’s native population so they may also have had celtic link’s.
Similar to the legend’s of the Canary’s are the legend’s of Ys and Lyoness in cornwall and the scily isles though they are geographically much further north.
The most similar name to Plato’s Atlantis is to be found in the Aztec legendary lost and sunken homeland which the believed had sunken beneath the eastern sea (Atlantic) and called Aztlan though in all likeliness the name similarity is nothing more than a coincidence.
I do believe there are many sunken ruin’s and that such a catastrophe however is more than possible but that there are many atlantis most from the end of the last ice age as well as likely other’s from even earlier since we have been in and out of several ice age’s over the past couple of hundred thousand years as well as other geological phenomena which may have come into play.
It is an interesting and engrossing subject as well as a hotly contested one.
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